Institut Jožef Stefan, Ljubljana, Slovenija
06/11/2019/ at 15:00h
IF - predavaonica u zgradi Mladen Paić
Understanding how particles are arranged on the surface of a sphere is not only central to numerous physical, biological, soft matter, and materials systems but also finds applications in computational problems, approximation theory, and analysis of geophysical and meteorological measurements. Objects that lie on a sphere experience constraints that are not present in Euclidean space and that influence both how the particles can be arranged as well as their statistical properties. These constraints, coupled with the curved geometry, require a careful extension of quantities used for the analysis of particle distributions in Euclidean space to distributions confined to the surface of a sphere. I will introduce a framework designed to analyze and classify structural order and disorder in particle distributions constrained to the sphere. The classification is based on the concept of hyperuniformity, which was first introduced 15 years ago and since then studied extensively in Euclidean space, yet has only very recently been considered also for spherical surfaces. It employs a generalization of the structure factor on the sphere, related to the power spectrum of the corresponding multipole expansion of particle density distribution. The spherical structure factor is shown to couple with cap number variance, a measure of density variations at different scales, allowing us to analytically derive different forms of the variance pertaining to different types of distributions. Based on these forms, we construct a classification of hyperuniformity for scale-free particle distributions on the sphere and show how it can be extended to include other distribution types as well. I will demonstrate that hyperuniformity on the sphere can be defined either through a vanishing spherical structure factor at low multipole numbers or through a scaling of the cap number variance—in both cases extending the Euclidean definition, while at the same time pointing out crucial differences. The presented work provides a comprehensive tool for detecting global, long-range order on spheres and for the analysis of spherical computational meshes, biological and synthetic spherical assemblies, and ordering phase transitions in spherically distributed particles.